Thursday, December 18, 2008

Breeding Dogs for Intentional Defect

Sam, winner of ugliest dog contests 2003-2005.

All of the winners of the world's ugliest dogs contests have been Chinese Cresteds.

Why is this?

Well, it's more than the lack of hair
on the dog's body, or the odd placement of what little hair that does exist.

It's also the horrible condition of the teeth, and the fact that the dogs appear to have a hard time keeping their tongues in their mouth.

All of this is by design if not quite by intent.

Elwood, winner of ugliest dog contest 2007.

Rascal, winner of ugliest dog contest 2002.

You see, when folks are breeding hairless dogs, they are breeding for a specific genetic mutation of the FOXI3 gene, which controls both the development of coat and teeth in all hairless breeds.

Because the gene that controls hairlessness also controls teeth formation, hairless Chinese Cresteds generally have missing teeth, deformed teeth, or misplaced teeth, and it is fairly common for hairless dogs to end up completely toothless at some point in their lives.

As a result, the American Kennel Club standard for this made-in-America breed says that the "Hairless variety is not to be penalized for absence of full dentition."

Chinese Crested dogs, Mexican Hairless (Xoloitzcuintle), and Peruvian Hairless all share the same no-hair and poor-dentition gene mutation, and all are believed to be descended from a single-dog mutation which occurred in the New World some 4,000 years ago.

While hairless dog breeders are intentionally breeding defective dogs for canine ectodermal dysplasia (CED), the same condition in humans is considered a fairly serious problem.

Actor Michael Berryman was born with Ectodermal Dysplasia : A nice man.

As with hairless dogs, humans born with ectodermal dysplasia have malformed teeth and extremely sparse hair, and a higher-than average chance of having misshaped facial features and skin and eye abnormalities. This is because, as the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasias (NFED) notes, "The ectoderm contributes to the formation of many parts of the body, including the skin, sweat glands, hair, teeth, and nails. During embryonic development, these and/or other parts of the baby’s body, including the lens of the eye, parts of the inner ear, the fingers and toes, or nerves, among others, may fail to develop normally."

This is not to say that all hairless Chinese Crested dogs look like Zuul the devil dog in Ghostbusters anymore than to say that all humans with ectodermal dysplasia look as startling as Michael Berryman.

Most hairless Chinese Crested look like the dog below -- some with a little more hair, and some with a little less.

That said, most have teeth issues, and the breed has a relatively short average life -- just over 10 years -- quite a bit less than the number typically stated in the all-breed literature.


Heather Houlahan said...

Actually, many of the recent "Ugliest Dog" winners have been purpose-bred to win the the contest.

I learned this because I was imprudent enough to watch a television program about this; the teevee producers did not see anything wrong with that.

The owners are selecting the most malformed crested they can find, and either breeding them together or breeding them to other deformed little dogs. Then they let them age, so more teeth will fall out and more skin carbuncles will form.

More appalling than breeding a "beautiful" GSD or bulldog to win an ACK show?

I dunno. The ugly dog owners aren't insisting that the crippling deformity is "beautiful."

PBurns said...

I agree Heather -- it's all the same thing; breeding rather serious (often painful or miserable deformity) for the human vanity of ribbons.

No matter what the breed, when it's done, it's all the same.

Breeding bulldogs that cannot breathe and show shepherds that cannot walk is no better because some find those dogs visually more pleasing.

That said, I always find it amazing that people who intentionally breed dogs for a lifetime of pain and discomfort will shrink back if you wish the same thing on them and their children.


retrieverman said...

I always knew that all hairless dogs, except that hairless rat terrier that was born in Louisiana, are New World, pre-Columbian creations. (Why anyone would breed a hairless rat terrier is beyond me. Unlike the Xolo and Peruvian and "Chinese" hairless dogs, these terriers are born with "peach fuzz" all over their bodies, which they lose. These dogs are more like sphinx cats. They do have some fine hair on them.)

There is not a single hairless dog native Africa or Asia (unless it has mange), although there is one stuff at the Rothschild Museum at Tring. My guess is that they got scammed by someone trying to offload a proto-type of the Chinese crested dog from America on that family. The dog is called an African hairless dog, as if there were such a thing.

As for the ugliest dog competition, I never did get that one. How deformed a crested hairless or hairless cross can you breed? It does show you what the pet type of these dogs often looks like, and I bet they make up the majority of the breed.

They are sort of like the "white tigers" that are being bred. There was only one white tiger that was found in the wild in India, and he was bred to an Amur ("Siberian") tiger. Then one of his female offspring was bred to him. All white tigers are inbred, and because they are of mixed Amur and Bengal ancestry, they are not part of any species survival plans. However, most white tigers you see in zoos and circuses are the pretty ones. The vast majority have severe dental and facial deformities. Here's info on the white tiger:

I'm not surprised that the bulldog club rejected all of those standard reforms. This breed's been broken so long that no living person can remember what they were once like (which was something like Pit bull or an American bulldog).