Thursday, August 25, 2016

Dog Food: Are You Focused on the Right Thing?

As I have noted in the past, there is NO research anywhere that shows one dog food is better than another.

That said, I recommend a couple of "filters against folly":.

  • Big, Old Companies Are Better:  Buy from a large and established dog food maker that has its own kennels and invests in research, such as Purina. These dog food makers have established feed stock suppliers, have canine nutritionists on staff, and make their own food rather than contract it out.
  • AAFCO Feed Trials Are a Minimum:  Buy dog food that has been subjected to an AAFCO feed trial. No, these are not breathtakingly arduous trials to pass, but what's it say if your dog food maker has not even done this minimal level of testing?
  • Grocery Stores Have Fresher Foods:  Grocery stores sell a lot of everything, including pet food, and as a consequence, packaged goods move from factory to store house to store, and to home in record time. That's important for dry kibble, as the larger the store and the more volume moved, the more likely the food has been properly stored in an air-conditioned warehouse and moved quickly before spoilage.
  • Focus on Keeping Your Dog Slim:  If you are the kind of person who reads articles about dog food, then how much you feed your dog is generally more important than what you feed your dog. So long as the food is from a major AAFCO-feed trial tested brand, and is not too old, the key to nutrition is to not feed too much. If you cannot feel a rib, your dog is too fat!

I am happy to report that Dr. Lisa Freeman, a professor in the Department of Clinical Sciences at the Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts agrees.  

In a profile in the Tuft's Daily newspaper she notes that "The most important thing is the manufacturer," and that that a good dog food company should have at least one full−time, qualified nutritionist on board, as well as a research and development department, and that it should operate its own manufacturing plans.

Dr. Freeman says to stay away from dog food manufacturers who contract out with third party manufacturers, who do not have their own nutritionists and research departments, and who do not subject their foods to AAFCO feed trials, but instead assemble a package of kibble based on a recipe. These companies are investing in marketing, not nutrition.

Dr. Freeman also says we can ignore most dog food labels -- they are a kind of advertisement and are not a meaningful window into the actual ingredients in the food or the nutritional needs of your dog.

What about dog foods that advertise themselves as "organic" or which claims they are made of  "human−grade," or "premium" ingredients or which say they are "holistic"? 

It's all meaningless nonsense, designed to separate a gullible public from their wallet.

So what's not nonsense?  

Dr. Freeman says that labels which say they are a "complete" food are telling you something (it's a legally defined term), and so too are labels which are targeted at certain life stages, such as old age and puppies (terms defined by AAFCO).

What about animal byproducts?  Dr. Freeman says there is nothing wrong with them --  they are not poor quality meat, no matter what the chattering masses might claim.  And I guess Dr. Freeman might know -- she's not only a Veterinarian, she also has a Ph.D. from the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy and a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Nutrition" (DACVN).

So how can you tell if your dog is too fat?  Dr. Freeman has a perfectly simple instruction tip:

Make a fist and feel your knuckles. If you were feeling your dog or cat's ribs, that's too skinny.

Now flat hand, palm up and feel the base of your fingers. That's overweight.

If you make a flat hand, palm down and feel your knuckles … that's just right. That's what it should feel like, with that amount of pressure.

Nice! A simple instruction tip you can use with dog owners everywhere!

I Wish

I wish that the children and grandchildren of bulldog breeders would be born with the human equivalent of what they inflict on dogs -- severe brachycephalia and achondroplastic dwarfism.

I wish that the children and grandchildren of hairless Chinese Crested breeders would be born with ectodermal dysplasia and the dental, skin and eye problems that come with that genetic load.

I wish that the children and grandchildren of German Shepherd breeders would be born with twisted and dysplatic hips.

I wish that the male children and grandchildren of the Dalmatian breeders who reject back-cross dogs would be born with uric acid stones so severe they have to suffer a urethrostemy, in which their scrotum is removed, and their urinary tract is permanently relocated to the base of their penis so they can urinate like a female.

If it's good enough for the dog, it should be good enough for their owners and their families, right?

A Bucket of Poop for Your Child

Do you have a young child
that is interested in nature? Why not get him or her a bucket of shit?  

Half of North Africa's Population

Half of North Africa’s population
(Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) lives in the grey areas, half lives in the red areas.

Fishing Rod on Thursday

Wednesday, August 24, 2016

Dog Food: Let's Try Science!

Did you know that there have been no long-term, peer-reviewed, double-blind studies which conclude any benefit to a RAW diet for dogs?


And can ANYONE find a single long-term, peer-reviewed, double-blind study which shows that ANY dog food is better than another?

Can anyone find a single long-term, peer-reviewed, double-blind study which shows that corn in dog food is bad?

I keep asking, and so far no one has anything.


Here we have a billion-dollar-a-year industry in a country with hundreds of thousands of scientists, thousands of wonderful laboratories, hundreds of peer-reviewed journals, and there appears to be NOT ONE study, anywhere, that says one dog food is better than another based on evidence gathered in a real live-dog double-blind feed trial.

Nor is there ONE study which says corn in dog food is bad.

Not one.

And, let's face it, it's not because the for-profit high-dollar pet food industry is not heavily incentivized to find such a study.

If you build a better dog food and can prove it, people will pay.

But, of course, no one can.

Silence can also tell a story.

But to hear silence, you must clear your mind and really listen.

  • Note: If you actually have SCIENCE, i.e. a long-term, peer-reviewed, double-blind study please post in comments, otherwise do not. I am looking for evidence, not more recycled mumbo-jumbo, anecdote and opinion. Read the title.  
    This country (this world!) is crawling with large commercial kennels and crowded dog shelters. Most real dog food companies run live feed trials. And yet not one will make a claim that their dog food is better than another.

    Think otherwise? Prove it. Post a link or citation to a long-term, peer-reviewed, double-blind dog food study conducted with real dogs.

A Question From a Lost Boy

They were sometimes called "The Lost Boys"
-- Sudanese refugees between 8 and 18 years old, separated from their families and forced on a thousand mile march from Sudan to Ethiopia and Kenya.

Half died on that trip, from hunger, thirst, exhaustion, alligators.

A few of them were rescued and delivered to places like Fargo, North Dakota, in the middle of winter.

"Are there lions in this bush?" one asked, riding in a car to his new home from the airport.

From The New York Times Magazine, April 1, 2001:
Peter touched my shoulder. He was holding a can of Purina dog food.

"Excuse me, Sara, but can you tell me what this is?'' Behind him, the pet food was stacked practically floor to ceiling.

''Um, that's food for our dogs,'' I answered, cringing at what that must sound like to a man who had spent the last eight years eating porridge.

"Ah, I see,'' Peter said, replacing the can on the shelf and appearing satisfied. He pushed his grocery cart a few more steps and then turned again to face me, looking quizzical. '

'Tell me,'' he said, ''what is the work of dogs in this country?''

This Art Exhibit Has Gone to the Dogs

British designer Dominic Wilcox was commissioned to create an art exhibit for dogs by U.K. insurance company More Than with the idea that it would encourage people to boost the physical and mental health of their pets.

The Pace of African Population Growth

Nearly all of the world's population growth between now and 2100, will occur in Africa, but population growth here in the U.S. -- mostly driven by immigration -- will shape resource dependency and land use patterns as well.

The 125 million people the U.S. will add in the next 85 years is greater than the entire population of the U.S. west of Mississippi River today.

How many forests will fall to farm, and how many farms will fall to freeway when that happens? 

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

The Art of the Scruff

Working terriers are small dogs
and they are commonly pulled from den holes by their tails, and lifted up by the scruff of their neck.

Whenever I see or hear anyone expresses shock at this, they have told me two things: they do not know much about small dogs, and they are not watching the dog that is right in front of their eyes.

This last point is important, as a terrier properly lifted by the thick skin on the back of his or her neck does not yowl or struggle, nor are they prone to wiggle away and jump off.

A scruffed terrier simply relaxes as their small canine bodies have been programmed to do for more than ten thousand years.

This phenomenon even has a name -- it's called clipnosis -- and there have been scientific papers written about its effectiveness on dogs, cats, and other animals.

Clipnosis, or "pinch-induced behavioral inhibition" responses, have been seen in a wide range of animals, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and guinea pigs.

If you go to Google Scholar and search for "dorsal immobility" or "transport immobility," you will find a few hundred studies going back several decades.

In the modern pet world, the phenomenon is most commonly done with cats, with 2-inch binder clips creating the "pinch-induced behavioral inhibition" (see the video, below). Amazon even sells a Clipnosis Gentle Calming Cat Clip which looks suspiciously like a woman's hair clip.

Are there limits as to weight when it comes to scruffing?

Sure. I would not do it for a dog that weighed more than 25 pounds or so, but working terriers are about half that weight, and scruffing has been a traditional way of pulling terriers and fox out of holes in order to maintain maximum control and minimize struggle or fuss for hundreds of years.

To be clear -- the dog is not scruffed for a long period of time -- less than 5 seconds is typical, as seen in the video at top which is from a TV newscast detailing the recent flooding in Baton Rouge.

Whenever someone hyperventilates about it being "disrespectful" to scruff a fox, cat, or small dog I know two things: 1) they still think dogs and cats are about how they feel and what they think, and; 2) they are not being very observant.

Here's a clue:  Dogs have a useful code inside them, and using that code to help either dog or man is never wrong.

Dupont Circle Rat Sanctuary and Sonny Bono Park

This is from Google Maps. The "Dupont Circle Rat Sanctuary" moniker is simply a humorous nod to the fact that D.C. government has done very little to stop rat infestation in Dupont Circle. One problem is there are pet dogs who would get into bait trays, there are a lot of people eating lunch and throwing birdseed, and there are always homeless folks living on one bench or another. D.C. could smoke, poison, and plow the dens, but D.C. government is not that industrious.

Sonny Bono does not really have a statue
, but there is a plaque, and in the middle of the little triangle of land, buried in a time capsule, are a pair of Sonny's congressional cufflinks, the original handwritten lyrics to "I Got You Babe", and a menu to his long forgotten California restaurant. The whole thing was put together by someone who pays the city a fee to maintain this little dirt strip of a park named after their friend.  We should all be so lucky.

The Genetic Load Unseen

According to a report
from the University of Helsinki which tested nearly 6,788 dogs of more than 233 different breeds for recessive genes linked to 93 genetic disorders, about one in six dogs are carriers of something, and about one in six disorder carriers were found in a dog breed where it had not been previously seen in evidence.  The study, published in PLOS ONE, was led by Finnish company Genoscoper Ltd. in partnership with researchers from the University of Helsinki and Pennsylvania. and is considered the most comprehensive study on canine hereditary disorders so far.

What does this mean for dog breeders? Simple: the more you double down by line breeding and inbreeding, the more likely you are to see two recessive genes come together to create disease. Outcrossing does not guarantee the resulting litter will be free of disease -- you may hit the same recessive gene in the outcross -- but it lowers the chance considerably, to perhaps as little as one dog in 500.

Half of the Nation's Population Lives in the Blue Counties

Monday, August 22, 2016

American Life on the Edge

More than half of the entire U.S. population — 54%  — lives on the edge of this map.

The Last Couple on the Island

The National Park Service has formally started an Environmental Impact Statement process towards consideration of bringing more Grey Wolves into Isle Royale National Park, as only two aged wolves (father daughter) remain on the island now. At one point, there were as many as 50 wolves on Isle Royale, but inbreeding and resulting low fecundity took its toll.

The four options
on the table:

  • No action — let nature take its course. 
  • Bring in a few wolves during a one-time period, which could take a couple years. 
  • Bring in wolves multiple times over the next 20 years. 
  • Take no action now, and reconsider the top three options later on.

Drone Over Dominica Spots World's Largest Predator

Half of the Population of Mongolia

Half of the population of Mongolia
is contained in the two tiny red dots.

Coffee and Provocation

America's Oldest Magazine Takes a Stand Against Trump
In an unprecedented editorial, Scientific American has come out against the stunning and reckless ignorance Donald Trump, noting that his "lack of respect for science is alarming." The go on to note that "Americans have long prided themselves on their ability to see the world for what it is, as opposed to what someone says it is or what most people happen to believe. In one of the most powerful lines in American literature, Huck Finn says: “It warn't so. I tried it.” A respect for evidence is not just a part of the national character. It goes to the heart of the country's particular brand of democratic government. When the founding fathers, including Benjamin Franklin, scientist and inventor, wrote arguably the most important line in the Declaration of Independence — 'We hold these truths to be self-evident' — they were asserting the fledgling nation's grounding in the primacy of reason based on evidence."

Bounties Work
There are no wolves in Pennsylvania and Ohio because they were extirpated after bounties were paid on them. Bounties still work, as can be seen in Louisiana, where a bounty program is working to reduce the number of nutria (coypu) eating up the marshland. During the 2012-13 hunting season, hunters using rifles, shotguns and traps killed 388,160 of giant water rats, and were paid $5 a tail for their efforts.

Camels Gave Us the Common Cold
Camels gave the world the common cold, as well as MERS.

How Do They Make Nature Documentaries?
How much is fake?  What are the ethical choices when filming a kill scene?

‘Disease Detective’ Who Eradicated Smallpox, Dies at 87
Donald “D.A.” Henderson, an American epidemiologist who led the war on smallpox that resulted in its the eradication of the disease in 1980, the only such vanquishment in history of a human disease, died Aug. 19 at a hospice facility in Towson, Md. He was 87 and is credited with saving scored of millions of lives.

Roald Dahl Beer?
In celebration of Roald Dahl's 100th birthday, fans will soon be able to drink a beer made from a yeast cultured from his writing chair.

Police Destroy House In 10-Hour Standoff with Police 
An Idaho woman is suing the Caldwell Police Department, several officers and the city for damaging home during a 10-hour standoff 2014. Police thought an armed suspect was in the house, but in fact there the only her dog.

Seventh-Inning Fetch

This dog needs to play
for Major League Baseball!

Sunday, August 21, 2016

1000-year-old Dogs Buried Under Lima Zoo

While digging at the Lima, Peru zoo, archeologists found the remains of more than 125 dogs buried among the remains of a similar number of humans. Pots and other evidence associated with the dig suggests dogs and humans were buried together about 1,000 years ago.

The humans are both men and women between the ages of 20 and 40, and look to have been killed by violent skull fracture and others blows, while it appears the dogs were strangled. The murder-sacrifices and burials may have been part of a ritual carried out after a traumatic event.  The three most common dog types appear to be very similar to the types of street dogs still found in Lima today.

Not Your Daddy's NRA

This is the National Recovery Administration, a New Deal agency established by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933 in order to eliminate "cut-throat competition" by bringing industry, labor, and government together to create codes of "fair practices" and set prices. The NRA allowed industries to get together and write "codes of fair competition" in order to reduce "destructive competition" and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours, as well as minimum prices at which products could be sold.

Sunday Morning Coming Down

Can You Find It?

Eastern Screech Owl

What Do You Have to Lose?

Saturday, August 20, 2016

"Professor" Damrel's Wolf Cart

"Prof. J.A. Damrel & Five Timber Wolves pulled wagon for
"CREAM of RYE", Minneapolis Cereal Co, Minnesota, 1912"

This is a promotion wagon and card 
for "Cream of Rye" cereal from 1912.

The Minneapolis Cereal Company (now called General Mills) employed "Professor" J.A. Damrel and his team of canids, sometimes listed as "five timber wolves," to go "coast to coast" advertising their product.

The story has a few holes, however, as Mace Loftus notes over at The Wolf Crossing.

For one thing, there is no evidence this team of five wolves ever got out of the orbit of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Illinois, much less traveled from Seattle, Washington, as trumpeted in the few remaining advertising circulars of the era.

The real story appears that Professor Damrel and his wife started on the road on May 15, 1912 from their general store in Ashland, Wisconsin, and by July 30th they had reached Racine, a distance of about 374 miles in 76 days at an average speed of about 5 miles a day.

On October 17th, The Decatur Review reported that J.R. Damrel and wife drove a team of wolves into Decatur, Illinois, and that the team "is composed of three Siberian wolves, one husky, one large Alaskan dog and one timber wolf". Though Mr. Damrel said he expected to reach New York City by the middle of December, and that his dog team averaged 40 miles a day, the actual distance between Racine, Wisconsin, and Decatur, Illinois is just 277 miles, a distance traversed in 79 days at a speed of about 3.5 miles a day.

So what's the real story?

It appears Mr. Damrel dug out a litter of wolf pups near Cayuga, Wisconsin, raised them up for a year or two, trained them to pull a wagon with perhaps the addition of one or two wolf-like Alaskan sled dogs. He then sold the folks at the Minneapolis Cereal Company on a promotion for their new rye cereal, danced up a fancy story to help grease the promotion circuit (and perhaps get a free room on the way), and made a 700-mile trip of it over five months, never once tripping over his own tail in an era of weak reporting and poor long-distance communication.

Friday, August 19, 2016

Louisiana's Missing Tsunami Stones

The flooding now going on in Louisiana, following something like 20" of rain over two days, is a reminder that humans have short memories and that we tend to create perverse incentives to encourage bad behavior.

Extinction of memory.  I have called it the first thing to go extinct. 

Perhaps no one has written about it as well as John Steinbeck in East of Eden, when he talks about California's long-repeating drought cycles:

I have spoken of the rich years when the rainfall was plentiful. But there were dry years too, and they put a terror on the valley. The water came in a thirty-year cycle. There would be five or six wet and wonderful years when there might be nineteen to twenty-five inches of rain, and the land would shout with grass. Then would come six or seven pretty good years of twelve to sixteen inches of rain. And then the dry years would come, and sometimes there would be only seven or eight inches of rain. The land dried up and the grasses headed out miserably a few inches high and great bare scabby places appeared in the valley. The live oaks got a crusty look and the sagebrush was gray. The land cracked and the springs dried up and the cattle listlessly nibbled dry twigs. Then the farmers and the ranchers would be filled with disgust for the Salinas Valley. The cows would grow thin and sometimes starve to death. People would have to haul water in barrels to their farms just for drinking. Some families would sell out for nearly nothing and move away. And it never failed that during the dry years the people forgot about the rich years, and during the wet years they lost all memory of the dry years. It was always that way.

What is true of drought is also true of flood and fire, and at least one culture -- the Japanese -- have embraced a permanent way to teach and warn the next generation -- Tsunmai stones.

From The April 4, 2011 New York Times:

Residents of Aneyoshi, Japan, heeded the warnings of their ancestors. They obeyed directions and wisdom found on a local stone monument: “Do not build any homes below this point,” it reads. “High dwellings are the peace and harmony of our descendants. Remember the calamity of the great tsunamis.” When the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami devastated Japan, this village sat safely above the high water mark.

Hundreds of such “tsunami stones” dot the coastal hillsides of Japan. Planted decades or even centuries ago, they commemorate past disasters and warn residents of future ones.

In Aneyoshi, village leader Tamishige Kimura praises his forefathers for putting a stone marker in place and obviating the need to rebuild. “They knew the horrors of tsunamis, so they erected that stone to warn us,” he told the New York Times in 2011. Kimura describes its warning as “a rule from our ancestors, which no one in Aneyoshi dares break.”

This particular stone in Aneyoshi dates back to the 1930s. After the village was devastated by the 1896 tsunami it was rebuilt in the same place. But when another tsunami struck in 1933 the village was moved uphill. A tsunami stone was put in place after that disaster and is credited with saving the town in 1960 and again in 2011.

Instead of erecting our own common-sense versions of Tsunami stones in Louisiana and California, we have created taxpayers-subsidized insurance pools to encourage bad behavior.

Few things are more perverse that flood insurance in Louisiana, where flood is so common that FEMA (your tax dollars at work!) underwrites and backstops flood insurance sold and marketed by private companies like State Farm.

These private companies not only sell taxpayer-underwritten federal flood insurance for water, they also sell private corporate-backed insurance for wind damage, using the same private sales force, inspectors, and auditors out in the field.

And the result? When a massive storm comes along, like Hurricane Katrina, wind-damaged buildings that are 20 or 30 miles inland from the storm surge are said by company-paid inspectors and auditors to be "flood damaged".

That simple false claim, which is never "ground truthed," shifts massive costs from the corporate bottom line to government (taxpayer) ledgers.

This is a multi-billion dollar pickpocket
abetted by a poorly managed FEMA bureaucracy and thousands of lawyer-lobbyists who grease the wheels in Baton Rouge and in Washington, D.C. This is privatizing profits and communizing costs in order to make a few thousand lawyers and lobbyists fabulously rich.

The Tsunami stones? They are free, and they save lives and money. But they also require a culture that puts at least some small value on collective cohesion for the common good, rather than the free-style, go-wild, cowboy corporate capitalism that American embrace over self-restraint and common sense.  

What They Don't Tell You About War Mortality

If this WEEK, we had all of the COMBINED additional mortality from the Congo War of 1886-1908 (8 million dead), and Word War I (5 million dead) and the Russian Civil War (9 million dead) and Stalin (20 million dead), and World War II (66 million dead) and Mao (40 million dead), we would still have more people on earth than we did two years ago.  #necrometrics  #environmentalfactstheyhidefromyou 

My Dogs Have Forever Homes

My wife, kids, and parents too.

Do Something Fun With Your Dog

Do something fun with your dog this weekend. Get outside. Get off the sidewalk.

What They Don't Tell You About Bears

If every American black bear killed one American a day, everyday for two years, we could solve our foreign dependence on imported oil. #environmentalfactstheyhidefromyou

Fish on Friday

Thursday, August 18, 2016

A Dog's Life: Love in the Traces

St. Albans Dog Day Cut from The Underdog Documentary on Vimeo.

From the web site for the movie Underdog about Doug Butler's goal of winning the Open North American Sled Dog Race in Fairbanks, Alaska. This three-day battle pits fifteen of the world’s best mushers on a 22-mile trail. Doug has qualified many times, but never been able to "kick spandex-wearin’ European ass" because, as a farmer, he is tied to the land and his herds. This year is likely his last big shot:

Doug Butler is a quirky old Vermont farmer in a race against time. With his health declining and his dairy farm in trouble, Doug is hell-bent on achieving his two lifelong dreams: passing on the family farm to his son and winning the dog mushing world championships. He's the underdog, but the kind you want to root for. Training fifty canine athletes after a 12-hour workday demands a rare combination of dedication and madness. For decades this has been Doug’s unique escape from the harsh realities of farming, fine-tuning his team through subzero temperatures on a trail surrounding his farm in giddy anticipation of the next race. At the age of 62, Doug is often asked if he’s slowing down. His response is simple and direct, "that’s for old people."

But the deep lines on his weathered face tell the truth: a life of hard labor has taken its toll. In the last five years the Butler’s have doubled their herd size from 300 to 600, but not by choice. As mega-farms with thousands of cattle begin to dominate the landscape, milk prices continue to drop, forcing Doug and his son to increase herd numbers without increasing their staff. Still the farm loses money every month — it's threads of control steadily unwinding.

It’s clear that maintaining a fifty dog team and running a family farm have both become unsustainable — pushing Doug’s body and business to the brink of failure. Yet the man refuses to quit. This year, Doug is determined to not only continue, but to both win the dogsledding world championships and pass off a viable family farm to his son. He’s the underdog, but he doesn’t seem to mind. To him, it’s simple.

"We’re gonna be dead longer than we’re alive," Doug reminds us, "so let’s have fun…let’s get her done."

This story reminds me
, a bit, about Donald McCaig's trip to the World Championship sheep dog trial in Llandielo, Wales, recounted in his excellent book, Mr. and Mrs. Dog.  Buy it; read it!

Critter Carts of Every Kind

If you can put a harness on it, you can at least pose for a picture with it "pulling" a cart. With the exception of the alligator, however, I think all of these would work, though how much cart control you would have with a hippo or a team of elk would be interesting to know.  Thanks to Melissa T. for the elk, lion team, and hippo pics!

For those interested in dog carts, see my earlier post on Dog Carts and the Extinction of Memory.

Dog Carts and the Extinction of Memory

Dog cart selling meat scraps for pets.

The first thing that goes extinct is memory.

Who alive, among us today, remembers when dog carts prowled our streets?

And yet in most of Europe, and in the largest cities of the U.S., they once did, pulling small wagons filled with milk, bread, and perhaps ready-to-drink lemonade or tea.

Dogs were used in war too, to pull ammunition and machines guns to the front lines (dogs are harder to shoot than horses), and to pull reels of communication line and barbed wire.

Would a dog-drawn small business work today?

I think so.

Imagine a dog-drawn ice cream, lemonade, or hot dog cart. The novelty of the thing would be a competitive advantage, attracting kids and adults equally. Here's a small-business idea just waiting to happen!

Dog cart, Brussels. Probably milk.

Dog cart with milk canisters. Large terrier is probably a guard dog.

Bakers dog cart, brace of dogs.

Dog cart mobile tea delivery, Brussels, with three dog team.

Baker's dog cart with handles to help the dog up hills,and to slow the cart going down.

Dog cart with ammunition, 1917, Italy. Brace pair.

Dog cart with milk canisters, Holland. Handle to help push and slow cart as needed.

Dog cart with milk canisters.

Dog cart with machine guns, World War I, Belgium.

Dog cart jitney, Canada.

Dog cart, Belgium, with three dogs. Probably a produce cart.

Dog cart with milk canisters, Lucerne, Switzerland.

Silent film star Mary Pickford Dog with dog cart in the movie Pollyanna.

Milk cart pulled by brace par of shepherds, Lauterbrunner, Switzerland.

Dog cart with milk canisters, Rosendaal, Netherlands.